17 U.S. Code § 107 - Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use
Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include—
(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes [all mirrored content falls under this clause, any ads present are mirrored from the original site, mirrored content earns me no revenue whatsoever];
(2) the nature of the copyrighted work [this is a unique resource for the mentally ill, and preservation of it can be argued to be incredibly important];
(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. [absolutely none whatsoever, as the original work no longer exists anywhere else (outside of whatever bits and pieces archive.org managed to capture) - the original site was intermittantly completely unavailable for a extended period of time before its SSL certificate expired (and was never renewed), and eventually the site went offline for good, then finally the DNS records were removed at some point prior to May 2018, so at this point it is well beyond the 'dead and rotting' stage]
The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.

This domain is not controlled by Jerod Poore, and I will NOT continue redirecting traffic from this domain to crazymeds.us [as I formerly did] while Jerod continues with his immature temper tantrum over adblock or continues to fail to maintain his site, fucking over his entire community and countless visitors in the process. [belated clarification: with specific regards to the adblock drama I was referring to Poore at one point replacing his entire site with a single page complaining about the amount of revenue lost to users with ad blocking active, which is something that I took extreme exception to because this affected ALL visitors to the site regardless of if or if not they were actually using ad blocking]
This mirror is unfortunately incomplete (and very slightly outdated), as /CrazyTalk/ was not included when I scraped the site (it was far too large to scrape given the site's extremely poor performance, my wish to avoid worsening the poor performance further, and other factors). If you're looking for a replacement forum, I suggest visiting https://www.crazyboards.org/forums/. There are issues with many of the mirrored pages, I am working on identifying and fixing them, but I do not have the time to address every single issue at this moment (although by now the majority of these issues have been resolved). Dynamic content is obviously completely broken (this is beyond my control), and the loss of /CrazyTalk/ is quite bad given how much good user-generated info was on there, but you have Jerod to "thank" for that. Maybe I'll bring it back online at some point, but it wouldn't be the same as before. For now, I suggest visiting CrazyBoards instead.
Note (Oct 9 2018): Infrequent additional updates regarding the status of this site will be posted on https://info.crazymeds.net

Get mugged at Straitjacket T-shirts for Crazymeds mugs to wash down your mood stabilizers. 11oz $13 & 15oz $14
Team Bipolar mugs at Straitjacket T-shirts
Team Bipolar
Mentally Interesting mugs at Straitjacket T-shirts
Mentally Interesting
Captain Manic! mugs at Straitjacket T-shirts
Captain Manic!
I <3 Zyprexa mugs at Straitjacket T-shirts
I <3 Zyprexa

Mood Stabilizer Overview/Topic Index | First-Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGAs) & Atypical Antipsychotic drugs (AAPs) as Mood Stabilizers

1.  Crazymeds Used as Mood Stabilizers

Until the early 2000s practically everything prescribed in the US to treat bipolar disorder was an off-label prescription. At that time all the doctors had was lithium, Thorazine, and Depakote with FDA approval to treat mania; Thorazine and Depakote began as meds for something else, while lithium, just prior to its use as a mood stabilizer, was no longer considered a medication1. There were a whole bunch of antidepressants, with new ones being approved all the time, to very carefully treat the depressive episodes. However, some doctors refused to prescribe antidepressants at all. I liked to joke that if a med was in the PDR it was used by somebody, somewhere, at some time, to treat bipolar.

Ten years later there are even more options with FDA approval to treat bipolar disorder. Most of them are atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), and it’s likely that all meds in the new future approved to treat bipolar disorder will also be AAPs. There are still lots of Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) that are used, with or without the FDA’s official blessing, and more being approved all the time. Almost any AED will be used to treat bipolar sooner or later2.

Stick to your mood stabilizers with our buttons and magnets. 2.25″ $4 & 3.5″ $4.50
Batshit Crazy magnets at Straitjacket T-shirts
Batshit Crazy
Captain Bipolar buttons at Straitjacket T-shirts
Captain Bipolar
Fuck Bipolar buttons at Straitjacket T-shirts
Fuck Bipolar
Medicated For Your Protection buttons at Straitjacket T-shirts
Medicated For Your Protection

2.  List of Mood Stabilizers/Bipolar Agents/Antimanic Agents Approved by the FDA:

2.1  Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs)/Anticonvulsants (ACs)

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), also known as anticonvulsants (ACs), with FDA approval to treat bipolar disorder:

2.2  Antipsychotics

Antipsychotics with FDA approval to treat bipolar disorder:

  • Abilify (aripiprazole)
  • Geodon/Zeldox (ziprasidone HCl) - but not Geodon IM (ziprasidone mesylate)
  • lithium
  • Risperdal (risperidone)
  • Saphris (asenapine)
  • Seroquel (quetiapine)
  • Thorazine (chlorpromazine)
  • Zyprexa (olanzapine) - including Zyprexa IM
  • Invega (paliperidone) - Not bipolar per se, however the oral version (but not Invega Sustenna, the once-a-month injection) is the first, and so far only, drug with FDA approval to treat the bastard love child of bipolar and schizophrenia: schizoaffective disorder.4
  • Symbyax (olanzapine & fluoxetine) - Technically classified as an antidepressant, this combination of the second-generation AP Zyprexa and the barely-selective SSRI Prozac was the first medication approved to treat bipolar depression, as well as the first medication approved to treat bipolar disorder and nothing else5.
  • Solian (amisulpride) is an SGA/AAP unavailable in the US, but approved elsewhere to treat bipolar disorder.

These will stick around longer than most side effects. More ways to be stuck-up at Straitjacket T-shirts. All stickers $5 each. Available in packs of 10 and 50.
Medicine Is The Best Medicine stickers at Straitjacket T-shirts
Medicine Is The Best Medicine
Vaccines Cause Immunity stickers at Straitjacket T-shirts
Vaccines Cause Immunity
Mental Illness is NOT Contagious stickers at Straitjacket T-shirts
Mental Illness is NOT Contagious
Medicated For Your Protection stickers at Straitjacket T-shirts
Medicated For Your Protection

3.  List of Drugs Often Prescribed Off-label as Mood Stabilizers / Bipolar Agents / Antimanic Agents

3.1  Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) / Anticonvulsants (ACs)

Antiepileptic drugs frequently prescribed off-label to treat bipolar disorder:

  • Depakene (valproic acid)
  • Tegretol (carbamazepine) - only Equetro is approved to treat bipolar in the US. Tegretol and generic carbamazepine are approved to treat it in Canada.
  • Topamax (topiramate)
  • Trileptal (oxcarbazepine)
  • Benzodiazepines
    • Ativan (lorazepam)
    • Klonopin (clonazepam)
    • Valium (diazepam)
    • Xanax (alprazolam)
  • Unless it’s one of the AEDs with side effects so bad that you’d use them only if nothing else works ( Sabril, Felbatol), it gets prescribed off-label to treat bipolar disorder.
  • Any newly-approved AED will get thrown at bipolar, assuming it’s not like Sabril or Felbatol. Don’t get your hopes up about any new AEDs going through the clinical trials for FDA approval to treat bipolar disorder. While the money is in bipolar disorder for SGAs/AAPs, as far as AEDs are concerned the money is in pain: headaches, fibromyalgia, and assorted forms of neuropathy and neuropathic pain.

3.2  Antipsychotics

Antipsychotics frequently prescribed off-label to treat bipolar disorder:

  • Haldol (haloperidol) - although it has a type of quasi-approval in that the PI sheet is littered with references to its use as an antimanic agent and the FDA didn’t tell Sandoz to remove them.
  • Although most First-Generation Antipsychotics (FGAs) were used for bipolar disorder at one time or another, you probably want to stick with Thorazine or Haldol.
  • Fanapt (iloperidone)
  • Clozaril (clozapine)
  • As with AEDs, any newly approved SGA/AAP that doesn’t have FDA approval for bipolar will get thrown at it anyway.

3.3  Miscellaneous Medications

Assorted other medications prescribed off-label to treat bipolar disorder:

  • Calcium Channel Blockers as Antimanics / Mood Stabilizers
    • verapamil - the most popular, and the only one with any results.
    • nimodipine - the data are contradictory as to whether it works or not.
    • isradipine - expensive and a pain in the ass to take.
  • Parkinson’s Disease / Restless Leg Syndrome Meds (dopamine agonists) as Antidepressants
    • Mirapex (pramipexole) - the most popular dopamine agonist prescribed off-label for depression.
    • Requip (ropinirole) - a close second. Bipolar depression responds fairly well to dopamine agonists.
    • Other dopamine agonists - second line meds for PD & RLS that are also used to treat the side effects of APs.
  • Stimulants as antidepressants and to treat ADD/ADHD that usually accompanies bipolar and/or bipolar is often misdiagnosed as. If you don’t believe me about bipolar disorder being misdiagnosed as ADD/ADHD (or vice versa), compare this test with this test. If it weren’t for the names could you tell the difference?

Keep Crazymeds on the air.
Donate some spare electronic currency
you have floating around The Cloud

| First-Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGAs) & Atypical Antipsychotic drugs (AAPs) as Mood Stabilizers

1 Although lithium carbonate and lithium citrate had been used to treat gout, hypertension, and even epilepsy (lithium causes seizures - I know that all too well - and is used to induce them in critters when testing various things), by the 1940s lithium carbonate was considered to have no medicinal value and lithium citrate was a third-line sedative.

2 Almost being the key word. Drugs like Sabril (vigabatrin) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which are used to treat forms of epilepsy so bad, and respond to little else, that side effects like partial to (rarely, but possible) total blindness, or a $23,000 a vial (approximately one month's worth) price tag really do suck less than something like West syndrome.

3 Whatever the fuck enteric-release is.

4 Although Clozaril (clozapine) has the extremely specific approval for "Reducing the Risk of Recurrent Suicidal Behavior in Patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder."

5 See above about lithium.

Drugs Used to Treat Bipolar Disorder is copyright 2012 Jerod Poore
Page created by: Jerod Poore. Date created: 26 January 2011 Last edited by: JerodPoore on: 2015–05–08

Page design and explanatory material by Jerod Poore, copyright © 2003 - 2015. All rights reserved.
Keep up with Crazymeds and and/or my slow descent into irreparable madness boring life. Pick your preferred social media target(s):

Almost all of the material on this site is by Jerod Poore and is copyright © 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 Jerod Poore. Except, of course, the PI sheets - those are the property of the drug companies who developed the drugs the sheets are about - and any documents that are written by other people which may be posted to this site will remain the property of the original authors. You cannot reproduce this page or any other material on this site outside of the boundaries of fair use copying without the express permission of the copyright holder. That’s usually me, so just ask first. That means if want to print out a few pages to take to your doctor, therapist, counselor, support group, non-understanding family members or something like that - then that’s OK to just do. Go for it! Please. As long as you include this copyright notice and something along the lines of following disclaimer, I’m usually cool with it.

All rights reserved. No warranty is expressed or implied in this information. Consult one or more doctors and/or pharmacists before taking, or changing how you take any neurological and/or psychiatric medication. Your mileage may vary. What happened to us won’t necessarily happen to you. If you still have questions about a medication or condition that were not answered on any of the pages you read, please ask them on Crazy Talk: the Crazymeds Forum.
The information on Crazymeds pertains to and is intended for adults. While some information about children and adolescents is occasionally presented (e.g. US FDA approvals), pediatric-specific data such as dosages, side effects, off-label applications, etc. are rarely included in the articles on drugs or discussed on the forum. If you are looking for information regarding meds for children you’ll have to go somewhere else. Plus we are big pottymouths and talk about S-E-X a lot.
Know your sources!
Nobody on this site is a doctor, a therapist, or a pharmacist. We don’t portray them either here or on TV. Only doctors can diagnose and treat an illness. While it’s not as bad as it used to be, some doctors still get pissed off by patients who know too much about medications, so tread lightly when and where appropriate. Diagnosing yourself from a website is like defending yourself in court, you suddenly have a fool for a doctor. Don’t be a cyberchondriac, thinking you have every disease you see a website about, or that you’ll get every side effect from every medication1. Self-prescribing is as dangerous as buying meds from fraudulent online pharmacies that promise you medications without prescriptions.
All information on this site has been obtained from the medications’ product information / summary of product characteristic (PI/SPC) sheets and/or medication guides - which is all you get from sites like WebMD, RxList, NAMBLA NAMI, etc., the sources that are referenced throughout the site, our personal experience and the experiences family, friends, and what people have reported on various reputable sites all over teh intergoogles. As such the information presented here is not intended as a substitute for real medical advice from your real doctor, just a compliment to it. You should never, ever, replace what a real doctor tells you with something from a website on the Internet. The farthest you should ever take it is getting a second opinion from another real doctor. Educate yourself - always read the PI/SPC sheet or medication guide/patient information leaflet (PIL) that comes with your medications and never ever throw them away. OK, you can throw away duplicate copies, but keep at least one, as that’s your proof of purchase of having taken a med in case a doctor doubts your medical history. Plus they take up less space than a bottle, although keeping one inside of a pill bottle is even better.
Crazymeds is not responsible for the content of sites we provide links to. We like them, or they’re paid advertisements, or they’re something else we think you should read to help you make an informed decision about a particular med. Sometimes they’re more than one of those things. But what’s on those sites is their business, not ours.
Very little information about visitors to this site is collected or saved. From time to time I look at search terms used and which pages they bring up in an effort to make the information I present more relevant. And the country of origin, just because I’m geeky like that. That’s about it. Depending on how you feel about Schrodinger, our privacy policy should either assuage or exacerbate your paranoia.
Crazymeds is optimized for ridiculously large screens and browsers that don’t block ads. I use Firefox and Chrome, running under Windows 72. On a computer that sits on top of my desk. With a 23 inch monitor. Hey, at least you can make the text larger or smaller by clicking on the + or - buttons in the upper right hand corner. If you have Java enabled. Like 99% of the websites on the planet, Crazymeds is hosted on domain running an open source operating system with a variety of open source applications, including the software used to display what you’ve been reading. As such Crazymeds is not responsible for whatever weird shit your browser does or does not do when you read this site3.
No neurologists, psychiatrists, therapists or pharmacists were harmed in the production of this website. Use only as directed. Void where prohibited. Contains nuts. Certain restrictions may apply. All data are subject to availability. Not available on all mobile devices, in the 12 Galaxies Guiltied to a Zegnatronic Rocket Society, or in all dimensions of reality. Hail Xenu!

‘Everything is true, nothing is permitted.’ - Jerod Poore

1 While there are plenty of books to help you with hypochondria, for some reason there’s not much in the way of websites. Then again, staying off of the Internet is a large part of curing/managing the disorder.

2 Remember kids, Microsloth operating systems are like TOS Star Trek movies with in that every other one sucks way, way more. With TOS Star Trek movies you don’t want to bother watching the odd-numbered ones. With Microsloth OS you don’t want to buy and install the even-numbered ones. Anyone who remembers ME and Vista knows what I mean.

3 Have I mentioned how open source operating systems for commercial applications is one of the dumbest ideas in the history of dumb ideas?* I don’t even need my big-ass rant any more. Heartbleed has made my case for me. And that’s just the one that got all the media attention. The very nature of an open source operating system makes security as much of an illusion as anonymity on teh Intergoogles. Before you flip out too much: the domain Crazymeds is hosted on uses a version of SSL that is not affected by the Heartbleed bug. That’s one of the many reasons why I pay a lot of money and keep this site on Lunarpages.

* Yes, I know I’m using open source browsers. I also test the site using the now-defunct IE and Safari browsers. Their popularity - and superiority - killed IE and Safari, so that’s why I rely on the open source browsers. It’s like brand vs. generic meds. Sometimes the generic is better than the brand.

Enable Crazymeds’ Financial Solvency!

Enable Crazymeds to keep spreading our knowledge. Donate some spare e-currency you have floating around The Cloud.

Improve Your Social Media Skills


Follow our Highly Irregular Updates and Paranoid Rants Other News

Square this Circle

For Site News and NeuroPsych Research


Show us teh like™

Crazymeds: The Blog

For Site News and Crap that Distracts me from my Fucked-up Life

Crazymeds’ Tumblr

Mentally Interesting Advocacy

OpEd News

Daily Kos

Sites That Probably Suck Less Than Crazymeds

Crazymeds Merchandise

Available at Straitjacket T-Shirts

Vaccines Cause Immunity bumpersticker at Straitjacket T-Shirts

Stuck Up
All stickers $5. Now Available in Packs of 10 & 50

Mentally Interesting button at Straitjacket T-Shirts

Button It!
2.25″ $4 & 3.5″ $4.50. Now Available in Packs of 10 & 100