17 U.S. Code § 107 - Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use
Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include—
(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes [all mirrored content falls under this clause, any ads present are mirrored from the original site, mirrored content earns me no revenue whatsoever];
(2) the nature of the copyrighted work [this is a unique resource for the mentally ill, and preservation of it can be argued to be incredibly important];
(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. [absolutely none whatsoever, as the original work no longer exists anywhere else (outside of whatever bits and pieces archive.org managed to capture) - the original site was intermittantly completely unavailable for a extended period of time before its SSL certificate expired (and was never renewed), and eventually the site went offline for good, then finally the DNS records were removed at some point prior to May 2018, so at this point it is well beyond the 'dead and rotting' stage]
The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.

This domain is not controlled by Jerod Poore, and I will NOT continue redirecting traffic from this domain to crazymeds.us [as I formerly did] while Jerod continues with his immature temper tantrum over adblock or continues to fail to maintain his site, fucking over his entire community and countless visitors in the process. [belated clarification: with specific regards to the adblock drama I was referring to Poore at one point replacing his entire site with a single page complaining about the amount of revenue lost to users with ad blocking active, which is something that I took extreme exception to because this affected ALL visitors to the site regardless of if or if not they were actually using ad blocking]
This mirror is unfortunately incomplete (and very slightly outdated), as /CrazyTalk/ was not included when I scraped the site (it was far too large to scrape given the site's extremely poor performance, my wish to avoid worsening the poor performance further, and other factors). If you're looking for a replacement forum, I suggest visiting https://www.crazyboards.org/forums/. There are issues with many of the mirrored pages, I am working on identifying and fixing them, but I do not have the time to address every single issue at this moment (although by now the majority of these issues have been resolved). Dynamic content is obviously completely broken (this is beyond my control), and the loss of /CrazyTalk/ is quite bad given how much good user-generated info was on there, but you have Jerod to "thank" for that. Maybe I'll bring it back online at some point, but it wouldn't be the same as before. For now, I suggest visiting CrazyBoards instead.
Note (Oct 9 2018): Infrequent additional updates regarding the status of this site will be posted on https://info.crazymeds.net

side effects, dosage, how to take & discontinue, uses, pros & cons, and more


US brand name: Trileptal
Generic name: oxcarbazepine

Other Form: Oral suspension

Class: Antiepileptic Drug (AED)/Anticonvulsant (AC)

1.  Other Brand Names

  • Oxrate (India)
  • Timox (Germany)
  • Trileptin (Israel)

2.  FDA Approved Uses of Trileptal

Monotherapy (used by itself) or adjunctive therapy (used with other meds) for adults with partial seizures. Adjunctive therapy only for kids with partial seizures.

3.  Off-Label Uses of Trileptal

4.  Trileptal’s pros and cons

Pros: Having a much lower side effect profile than Tegretol and it’s really just as useful for almost as many things. In time it will be tried for just about everything, not just epilepsy, bipolar disorder and neuropathic pain. Its side effect profile is also lower than Topamax.

Cons: A lack of US studies or interest by Novartis or something to get this med approved for as many seizure types as its older brother Tegretol may prevent you from getting it. The jury is still out if it really is as effective for everything as Tegretol. Wacky hyponatremia side effect (not enough salt in your blood - just like the creature from first aired episode of Star Trek!) could force you to eat potato chips all the time. Hey, wait, maybe that’s a pro!

5.  Trileptal’s Side Effects

5.1  Typical Side Effects

Those common for anticonvulsants. Like all meds that hit your temporal lobe, you’ll feel tired, confused, uncoordinated, even somewhat drunk and disoriented. You’ll have problems with your memory, have a hard time thinking and things will just seem really strange. And it figures that a med good for treating headaches will just give people bad headaches. For the most part these will pass, or at least they won’t be so bad, within a couple of weeks. Or a month. And, of course, they’ll come back when your dosage goes up. But they usually won’t be as bad or last as long the next time around. Unless you’re getting way more Trileptal than you should be. Of the three temporal lobe-affecting meds, Trileptal seems to have the lowest side effect profile. So these effects are either less likely to hit you or they won’t hit you as badly. If you’re switching from Tegretol you may not even experience any of these if you’ve dealt with them already.

5.2  Not So Common Side Effects

Hyponatremia - not enough salt in your blood. Time to stock up on potato chips and other salty snacky goodness! Also photosensitivity. While all anticonvulsants and antipsychotics make you more sensitive to sunlight, Tegretol and Trileptal are just the worst when it comes to turning you into a vampire.

5.3  Freaky Rare Side Effects

Crisis in the rotation of the eyeballs and renal calculus (Whenever our kidneys have to do advanced math, it’s a crisis). “Renal calculus” is fancy doctor-speak for kidney stones. Rare, but not all that freaky.

6.  Interesting Stuff Your Doctor Probably Won’t Tell You

  • Trileptal works better for boys than girls for bipolar disorder. At least it did in that one small study.
  • Hyponatremia, the significant lowering of sodium in the bloodstream, can be a problem. You may be required to supplement your sodium intake. I’m serious about the potato chips.
  • The jury is still out if Trileptal really is as effective as Tegretol - for whatever you’re taking it for - so you may have to take Tegretol instead.
  • As an enzyme-inducing AED, albeit a mild one, Trileptal will sap your body of vitamin D, folic acid, and maybe even calcium. So ask your doctor about tests for vitamin D and calcium levels and supplements. You should probably take 400–1,000mcg of folic acid in any event, but no more than that, otherwise it might interfere with how well Trileptal works.

7.  Trileptal’s Dosage and How to Take Trileptal

For epilepsy and bipolar disorder the standard recommendation has you starting at two 300mg doses a day, increasing by 300mg a day every three days until you hit 1200mg a day. After that it all depends on symptoms. You should find your proper dosage somewhere between 1200 and 2400mg a day.

My suggestion for bipolar disorder and as an add-on for partial seizures is starting at 300mg a day in two 150mg doses and increasing by 150mg a day every week until your symptoms stop and/or you hit 900mg a day. After that you can go up or down 300mg a day, as required, until you find your sweet spot between 900 and 2400mg a day. You have to be seriously seizing or flipping out to want to go up any faster. Take it slow and easy, get used to the med to avoid the worst of the side effects.
If you’re taking Trileptal for generalized seizures or as monotherapy for partial seizures it’s between you and your doctor.

8.  How Long Trileptal Takes to Work

While you’ll probably start feeling something once you hit a steady state, the odds are you won’t really be getting any benefit until you’re at 900mg a day.

9.  Trileptal’s Half-Life & Average Time to Clear Out of Your System

Although enzyme-inducing drug, Trileptal has pretty linear pharmacokinetics. It does a double metabolism, but they’re both short, two and nine hours. It’s the active metabolite produced that does all the work. Trileptal is out of your system completely in two to three days.

10.  Days to Reach a Steady State

Usually two to three days.

11.  Shelf life

  • Tablets: 3 years.
  • Oral Solution: 3 years, 7 weeks after opening.

12.  How to Stop Taking Trileptal

Your doctor should be recommending that you reduce your dosage by 150–300mg a day every three days, based on the 2 and 9 hour half-lives, if not more slowly than that.

Like any anticonvulsant, if you’ve been taking Trileptal for more than a couple months and you’re up to or above 900mg a day (give or take, depending on other meds you might be taking) you just can’t stop cold turkey if you’re not at the therapeutic dosage for another anticonvulsant that is known to work for you, otherwise you risk partial-complex, absence seizures or even tonic-clonic (AKA grand mal) seizures, despite your never having had a seizure disorder before! The risk is worse if you’re taking a lithium variant, and/or most antidepressants, especially Wellbutrin (bupropion hydrochloride).

If you’ve worked your way up to a particular dosage, it’s usually best to spend this many days at the next lowest dosage before going down the next lowest dosage before that and so forth. This is the least sucky way to avoid problems when stopping any neurological / psychiatric medication. Presuming you have the option of slowly tapering off them.


Trileptal is the newish & improved (more or less) version of Tegretol. At least, we think it’s improved. It has a much lower side effect profile - although it still encourages you to stay inside and watch sports on TV to deal with the side effects of photosensitivity and hyponatremia - a monthly blood test isn’t required as with Tegretol, Trileptal has much less of an effect on oral contraceptives, other estrogen supplements, and Lamictal; although Lamictal is so temperamental a drug-drug interaction can’t be ruled out. Those are big improvements, right? But there’s still a question of efficacy for epilepsy, bipolar and all the off-label uses that Tegretol enjoys. Trileptal has had plenty of time to get approved for all the things Tegretol is approved for. What’s the hold up? Is it that there’s just a bigger profit margin in pushing anticonvulsants off-label with a nod and a wink from the pharm reps? Norvartis must have thought so, as they gambled on that, lost, and ended up paying $422.5 million for that mistake. Oops.

If Tegretol is indicated for you, for either epilepsy or bipolar, ask about Trileptal if it’s available where you live. Its better response rate could just be due to better med compliance as the side effects don’t suck as much donkey dong, but that’s still a damn good reason to take Trileptal instead of Tegretol. If it doesn’t work as well as expected it’s pretty easy to switch between the two meds. 300mg of Trileptal = 200mg of Tegretol. The PI sheets are full of information about switching between the two.

But when it comes to straightforward pain, especially the special hells that are glossopharyngeal neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia Tegretol kicks the asses of all other treatments.

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Don’t worry about actually buying one. Windows shop and share the designs you’d like to buy. Do you have something better to do right now?

14.  Trileptal Ratings, Reviews, & Other Sites of Interest

14.1  Rate Trileptal

Give your overall impression of Trileptal on a scale of 0 to 5.

Get all critical about Trileptal

3.5 stars Rating 3.2 out of 5 from 137 criticisms.
Vote Distribution: 25 – 9 – 6 – 14 – 40 – 43

14.2  Rate this article

If you’re still feeling judgmental as well as just mental1, please boost or destroy my self-confidence by honestly (and anonymously) rating this article on a scale of 0 to 5. The more value-judgments the better, even if you can criticize my work only once.

Get all judgmental about the Trileptal (oxcarbazepine) Synopsis

3.5 stars Rates 3.5 out of 5 from 93 value judgments.
Vote Distribution: 15 – 1 – 2 – 11 – 35 – 29

Stick to your AED-based treatment plan. Buttons and magnets, 2.25″ $4 & 3.5″ $4.50 the each
Team Epilepsy buttons at Straitjacket T-shirts
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Medicated For Your Protection

Pages and Forum Topics Google Thinks are Relevant to Your Mental Health

14.3  Full US PI sheet, Global SPCs & PILs, Other Consumer Review & Rating Sites, check for drug-drug interactions

Drugs.com’s drug-drug and drug-food interaction checker

It’s always a good idea to check for drug-drug interactions yourself. Just because most people in the crazy meds business know about really important interactions (e.g. MAOIs and a lot of stuff, warfarin and everything on the planet) doesn’t mean the person who prescribed your meds told you about them, or the pharmacist has all the meds you take at their fingertips like they’re supposed to. Or they have the time to do their jobs properly when not dealing with complete idiots or playing Angry Farmers on the Faecesbooks.

These will stick around longer than AED side effects. More ways to be stuck-up at Straitjacket T-shirts. All stickers only $5
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14.4  Discussion board

If you have any questions not answered here, please see the Crazymeds Trileptal discussion board.

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Donate some spare electronic currency
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15.  References

  1. Trileptal (oxcarbazepine) Full US Prescribing Information

PDR: Physicians’ Desk Reference 2010 64th edition

Instant Psychopharmacology 2nd Edition Ronald J. Diamond M.D. © 2002. Published by W.W. Norton

Primer of Drug Action 12th edition by Robert M. Julien Ph.D., Claire D. Advokat, Joseph Comaty © 2011 Published by Worth Publishers.

Partial Seizure Disorders Mitzi Waltz © 2001. Published by O’Reilly & Associates.

Healing Anxiety & Depression Daniel G. Amen, M.D., and Lisa C. Routh, M.D. © 2003. Published by G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Mosby’s Drug Consult 2007 (Generic Prescription Physician’s Reference Book Series) © 2007 An imprint of Elsevier.

1 Thank you! I'll be here all weak. Be sure to tip your content provider. And don't try the veal, it's cruelicious!

If you have any questions not answered here, please see the Crazymeds Trileptal discussion board. We welcome criticisms of the articles, notifications of bad links, site problems, consumer experiences with medications, etc. I’m not always able to write back. Hence I never answer questions about meds via e-mail that are answered by this or other articles. Especially if they have been repeatedly asked on the forum. That’s why we write these damn things. Questions about which meds are best for your condition should also be asked on the forum; because this is a free site, so the price of admission is making things easier for somebody else searching for the same answer. We don’t deal with children on the forum or in private because after doing this for ten years I don’t have the emotional stamina to deal with kids who have brain cooties. How to contact Crazymeds. — Jerod Poore, CME, Publisher Crazymeds (crazymeds.net)

Last modified on Thursday, 27 March, 2014 at 20:49:27 by SomeMedCriticPage Author Date created
“Trileptal (oxcarbazepine): a Review for the Educated Consumer.” by Jerod Poore is copyright © Jerod Poore Published online 2011/03/14
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Trileptal, and all other drug names on this page and used throughout the site, are a trademark of someone else. Trileptal’s PI Sheet will probably have the name of the manufacturer and trademark owner (they’re not always the same company) at or near the very bottom. Or ask Google who the owner is. The way pharmaceutical companies buy each other and swap products like Monopoly™ real estate, the ownership of the trademark may have changed without my noticing. It may of changed hands by the time you finished reading this article.

Page design and explanatory material by Jerod Poore, copyright © 2003 - 2015. All rights reserved.
Keep up with Crazymeds and and/or my slow descent into irreparable madness boring life. Pick your preferred social media target(s):

Almost all of the material on this site is by Jerod Poore and is copyright © 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 Jerod Poore. Except, of course, the PI sheets - those are the property of the drug companies who developed the drugs the sheets are about - and any documents that are written by other people which may be posted to this site will remain the property of the original authors. You cannot reproduce this page or any other material on this site outside of the boundaries of fair use copying without the express permission of the copyright holder. That’s usually me, so just ask first. That means if want to print out a few pages to take to your doctor, therapist, counselor, support group, non-understanding family members or something like that - then that’s OK to just do. Go for it! Please. As long as you include this copyright notice and something along the lines of following disclaimer, I’m usually cool with it.

All rights reserved. No warranty is expressed or implied in this information. Consult one or more doctors and/or pharmacists before taking, or changing how you take any neurological and/or psychiatric medication. Your mileage may vary. What happened to us won’t necessarily happen to you. If you still have questions about a medication or condition that were not answered on any of the pages you read, please ask them on Crazy Talk: the Crazymeds Forum.
The information on Crazymeds pertains to and is intended for adults. While some information about children and adolescents is occasionally presented (e.g. US FDA approvals), pediatric-specific data such as dosages, side effects, off-label applications, etc. are rarely included in the articles on drugs or discussed on the forum. If you are looking for information regarding meds for children you’ll have to go somewhere else. Plus we are big pottymouths and talk about S-E-X a lot.
Know your sources!
Nobody on this site is a doctor, a therapist, or a pharmacist. We don’t portray them either here or on TV. Only doctors can diagnose and treat an illness. While it’s not as bad as it used to be, some doctors still get pissed off by patients who know too much about medications, so tread lightly when and where appropriate. Diagnosing yourself from a website is like defending yourself in court, you suddenly have a fool for a doctor. Don’t be a cyberchondriac, thinking you have every disease you see a website about, or that you’ll get every side effect from every medication1. Self-prescribing is as dangerous as buying meds from fraudulent online pharmacies that promise you medications without prescriptions.
All information on this site has been obtained from the medications’ product information / summary of product characteristic (PI/SPC) sheets and/or medication guides - which is all you get from sites like WebMD, RxList, NAMBLA NAMI, etc., the sources that are referenced throughout the site, our personal experience and the experiences family, friends, and what people have reported on various reputable sites all over teh intergoogles. As such the information presented here is not intended as a substitute for real medical advice from your real doctor, just a compliment to it. You should never, ever, replace what a real doctor tells you with something from a website on the Internet. The farthest you should ever take it is getting a second opinion from another real doctor. Educate yourself - always read the PI/SPC sheet or medication guide/patient information leaflet (PIL) that comes with your medications and never ever throw them away. OK, you can throw away duplicate copies, but keep at least one, as that’s your proof of purchase of having taken a med in case a doctor doubts your medical history. Plus they take up less space than a bottle, although keeping one inside of a pill bottle is even better.
Crazymeds is not responsible for the content of sites we provide links to. We like them, or they’re paid advertisements, or they’re something else we think you should read to help you make an informed decision about a particular med. Sometimes they’re more than one of those things. But what’s on those sites is their business, not ours.
Very little information about visitors to this site is collected or saved. From time to time I look at search terms used and which pages they bring up in an effort to make the information I present more relevant. And the country of origin, just because I’m geeky like that. That’s about it. Depending on how you feel about Schrodinger, our privacy policy should either assuage or exacerbate your paranoia.
Crazymeds is optimized for ridiculously large screens and browsers that don’t block ads. I use Firefox and Chrome, running under Windows 72. On a computer that sits on top of my desk. With a 23 inch monitor. Hey, at least you can make the text larger or smaller by clicking on the + or - buttons in the upper right hand corner. If you have Java enabled. Like 99% of the websites on the planet, Crazymeds is hosted on domain running an open source operating system with a variety of open source applications, including the software used to display what you’ve been reading. As such Crazymeds is not responsible for whatever weird shit your browser does or does not do when you read this site3.
No neurologists, psychiatrists, therapists or pharmacists were harmed in the production of this website. Use only as directed. Void where prohibited. Contains nuts. Certain restrictions may apply. All data are subject to availability. Not available on all mobile devices, in the 12 Galaxies Guiltied to a Zegnatronic Rocket Society, or in all dimensions of reality. Hail Xenu!

‘Everything is true, nothing is permitted.’ - Jerod Poore

1 While there are plenty of books to help you with hypochondria, for some reason there’s not much in the way of websites. Then again, staying off of the Internet is a large part of curing/managing the disorder.

2 Remember kids, Microsloth operating systems are like TOS Star Trek movies with in that every other one sucks way, way more. With TOS Star Trek movies you don’t want to bother watching the odd-numbered ones. With Microsloth OS you don’t want to buy and install the even-numbered ones. Anyone who remembers ME and Vista knows what I mean.

3 Have I mentioned how open source operating systems for commercial applications is one of the dumbest ideas in the history of dumb ideas?* I don’t even need my big-ass rant any more. Heartbleed has made my case for me. And that’s just the one that got all the media attention. The very nature of an open source operating system makes security as much of an illusion as anonymity on teh Intergoogles. Before you flip out too much: the domain Crazymeds is hosted on uses a version of SSL that is not affected by the Heartbleed bug. That’s one of the many reasons why I pay a lot of money and keep this site on Lunarpages.

* Yes, I know I’m using open source browsers. I also test the site using the now-defunct IE and Safari browsers. Their popularity - and superiority - killed IE and Safari, so that’s why I rely on the open source browsers. It’s like brand vs. generic meds. Sometimes the generic is better than the brand.

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